Piezoelectric materials Creative Commons, Attribution alone (BY)
Authors: Jozef Stefan Institute
Chemistry
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Piezoelectric materials are materials that generate an electrical charge on a surface resulting from an applied mechanical force. The phenomenon is called direct piezoelectric effect. There is also the converse piezoelectric effect, where material is mechanically deformed as a result of an applied electrical field. In general, this implies the ability of a material to change mechanical energy into electricity and vice versa.

Workforce in Chemistry

Chemistry is everywhere in our daily life and there are many jobs chemistry graduates do. Around 540,000 students study chemistry, physics, astronomy, and earth science in the EU. Chemistry graduates work as analysts, healthcare scientists, clinical chemists, forensic scientists, nanotechnologists, pharmacologists and toxicologists among others. Jobs for chemists, other scientists and engineers grew by 7% in the past five years. Jobs for technicians in the field grew by 2%. Overall, they account for 7% of all jobs in the EU. As of 2016, around 15 million European science and engineering workers are employed. They work in a variety of sectors, many of which related with chemical industry, such as agrochemicals, metallurgical, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and polymers. Many also work in professional services, utilities, and in the education systems. In the next years, jobs for chemistry scientists, other researchers and engineers will increase by 13%, and jobs for science and engineering technicians will increase by 2%.