Superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium for applications in sports Creative Commons, Attribution alone (BY)
Authors: Jožef Stefan Institute
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Superhydrophobicity is a phenomenon most commonly associated with the lotus effect, since the leaves of the Holy Lotus (lat. Nelumbo nucifera) exhibit this kind of phenomenon. On the surface of the leaves, water forms into spheres that roll off the leaf. Surface reflects superhydrophobicity, if both conditions are fulfilled: the contact angle must be greater than 150° and sliding angle less than 10°. Superhydrophobicity also affects other surface properties, such as reduced time of icing (anti-icing), reduced ice adhesion to the surface, or the surface has the ability to self-clean. Such properties are an important advantage, e.g. for ski manufacturers. Superhydrophobicity is a consequence of surface tension, due to the interaction between water (liquid), environment, and surface. The drop shape of the sphere has the smallest surface, therefore a drop of water forms. In the case of droplets, the forces between the liquid and the gas (atmosphere) FLV, the force between the surface and the fluid FSL, and the force between the surface and the gas FSV are in balance. Depending on the created balance, we conclude that the drop will take the shape of a sphere, a semicircle, or will form a film.

Workforce in Chemistry

Chemistry is everywhere in our daily life and there are many jobs chemistry graduates do. Around 540,000 students study chemistry, physics, astronomy, and earth science in the EU. Chemistry graduates work as analysts, healthcare scientists, clinical chemists, forensic scientists, nanotechnologists, pharmacologists and toxicologists among others. Jobs for chemists, other scientists and engineers grew by 7% in the past five years. Jobs for technicians in the field grew by 2%. Overall, they account for 7% of all jobs in the EU. As of 2016, around 15 million European science and engineering workers are employed. They work in a variety of sectors, many of which related with chemical industry, such as agrochemicals, metallurgical, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and polymers. Many also work in professional services, utilities, and in the education systems. In the next years, jobs for chemistry scientists, other researchers and engineers will increase by 13%, and jobs for science and engineering technicians will increase by 2%.