Superhidrofobne prevleke na aluminiju za aplikacije v športu Creative Commons, Attribution alone (BY)
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Authors: Institut ''Jožef Stefan''
Chemistry
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Superhidrofobnost je pojav, ki ga najpogosteje povezujemo z lotosovi efektom, saj listi Svetega Lotosa (lat. Nelumbo nucifera) izkazujejo tovrsten pojav. Na površini listov se namreč tvorijo kapljice v obliki kroglic, ki se z lista odkotalijo. Takšna površina odraža superhidrofobnost, saj sta izpolnjena oba pogoja in sicer kontaktni kot mora biti večji od 150°, ter kot zdrsa pa manjši od 10°. Superhidrofobnost vpliva tudi na druge lastnosti površine, kot so znižanje zmrzišča vode, zmanjšanje trenja, adhezije ledu na površino oziroma ima površina sposobnost samočiščenja. Takšne lastnosti so pomembna prednost npr. za izdelovalce smučk. Superhidrofobnost je posledica površinske napetosti, zaradi interakcije med vodo oz. tekočino, okoljem in površino. Oblika krogle oziroma sferična oblika ima najmanjšo površino, zato kapljica vode tvori takšno obliko. Pri kaplji so sile med tekočino in plinom (ozračjem) Flv, sila med površino in tekočino FSL in sila med površino in plinom FSV v ravnovesju.

Workforce in Chemistry

Chemistry is everywhere in our daily life and there are many jobs chemistry graduates do. Around 540,000 students study chemistry, physics, astronomy, and earth science in the EU. Chemistry graduates work as analysts, healthcare scientists, clinical chemists, forensic scientists, nanotechnologists, pharmacologists and toxicologists among others. Jobs for chemists, other scientists and engineers grew by 7% in the past five years. Jobs for technicians in the field grew by 2%. Overall, they account for 7% of all jobs in the EU. As of 2016, around 15 million European science and engineering workers are employed. They work in a variety of sectors, many of which related with chemical industry, such as agrochemicals, metallurgical, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and polymers. Many also work in professional services, utilities, and in the education systems. In the next years, jobs for chemistry scientists, other researchers and engineers will increase by 13%, and jobs for science and engineering technicians will increase by 2%.